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On this day …….. 31st of July 1942

In WWII, the first real attack of the Japanese on an Australian base occurred with the bombing of Darwin on 19 February 1942. That attack was the first of about 90 attacks that occurred at various places in and around Australia during the war. Shortly after this initial attack, the northwest coastal towns of Broome and Wyndham also came under fire, followed by Derby a few weeks later. It is less well known that the town of Mossman, near Cairns, was also bombed. On the night of 31 July 1942, Sub Lieutenant Mizukura dropped eight bombs, thinking that the lights he saw were Cairns. In fact it was Mossman, and while the other seven bombs have never been recovered, one fell on a sugar cane farm near Saltwater, Mossman. It caused a crater that measured 7 metres wide and a metre deep, and sent flying shrapnel through the window of the nearby farmhouse. Farmer Felice Zullo’s two and a half year old daughter was wounded in the head from shrapnel which entered the house, although she was in her cot at the time.

The child grew up to become Mrs Carmel Emmi, and on 31 July 1991, Mrs Emmi unveiled a plaque on a memorial stone commemorating the attack and her survival. The memorial stone is situated on Bamboo Creek Road, after the turnoff to Whyanbeel.

 

Big lamington – artist’s impression

On June 11, 2011, Toowoomba broke the Guinness World Record for the world’s largest lamington at the Newtown Rugby League Club. The record-beater weighed 2361 kilograms, equivalent to 45000 normal lamingtons, and eclipsed the previous record held by Ipswich. Both cities claim to be the birthplace of this Australian classic and Toowoomba is contemplating erecting a “big lamington” as a tourist attraction.

On This Day ……. 31st May 1942

When the town of Darwin was bombed by the Japanese in World War II, Australians were forced to accept the reality of how close the war was. Further bombing raids continued along Australia’s northwestern coastline, and even Townsville and Mossman in far north Queensland, but the war was truly brought home to Australians living along the more populated east coast on the day that three Japanese submarines entered Sydney Harbour. On the afternoon of 31 May 1942, three Japanese submarines sat approximately thirteen kilometres out from Sydney Harbour. Each launched a midget submarine, hoping to sink an American heavy cruiser, the USS Chicago, which was anchored in the harbour. One midget was detected by harbour defences at about 8:00pm, but was not precisely located until it became entangled in the net; the two-man crew of the submarine blew up their own vessel to avoid capture. When the second midget was detected after 10:00pm, a general alarm was sounded. The third midget was damaged by depth charges, and the crew also committed suicide to avoid capture. When the second midget was detected after 11:00pm and fired upon, the submarine returned fire, hitting the naval depot ship HMAS Kuttabul, a converted harbour ferry, which served as an accommodation vessel. Nineteen Australian and two British sailors on the Kuttabul died, the only Allied deaths resulting from the attack, and survivors were pulled from the sinking vessel. The submarine presumably returned to its mother ship, known as I-24. Nine days later, on 8 June 1942, I-24 surfaced off Sydney, about 10 km off Maroubra. For four minutes, the submarine’s deck gun was fired at the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Every shot landed well short of its target, with at least 10 shells hitting the residential suburbs of Rose Bay, Woollahra and Bellevue Hill. All but one of the shells failed to explode and there were no fatalities or serious injuries.

Bad Eggs is an Australian comedy movie, written and directed by Tony Martin and Producted by Macquarie Film Corporation with a budget of A$4.5 million. The film was released on the 25th of July 2003.

Ben Kinnear (Mick Molloy) and (Bob Franklin) Mike Paddock are detectives with the Melbourne Police force’s elite Zero Tolerance Unit. When a freak accident involving a dead magistrate  named Poulgrain lands them on the front page of the local paper, Ben and Mike are busted and demoted down to uniformed duties. Things get worse when they pay a visit to the Magistrate’s widow Eleanor (Robyn Nevin) and accidentally burn her house down. Thinkings become more complicated when Julie Bale (Judith Lucy), a journalist and a former police-officer and onetime partner of Kinnear’s, is arrested on a charge of blackmailing the Magistrate. But when Ben discovers a strange link between the accident and the business affairs of a shady casino boss he and Mike have been investigating, the pair decide they can no longer turn a blind eye to the corruption rife amongst their own colleagues.

Interesting filming fact about Bad Eggs, Peter Aanensen is playing “Arthur Ferris”, the same character he played in the classic Aussie police television drama Bluey (1976). Ferris, who was Bluey Hills’ superior in the third series, is in this film seen working as a security guard at Victoria’s Parliament House.

On this day …….. 3rd of October 1935

Possible the most renowned Australian dessert is undoubtedly the pavlova, but which country did it originate from is a hot topic. Consisting of a base made of meringue crust topped with whipped cream and fresh fruits such as kiwi fruit, passionfruit and strawberries. The Australian legend states that the pavlova was created by Herbert Sachse, the chef of the Hotel Esplanade in Perth, Western Australia, on 3 October 1935. It is said to have been given the name “Pavlova” by Harry Naire from the Perth hotel, in honour of the visiting Russian ballerina, Anna Pavlova. Naire is alleged to have stated that the built up sides of the dessert reminded him of her tutu. New Zealand may have a greater claim to the pavlova, however. Recipes for pavlova appeared in a magazine and a cookery book from 1926. What is clear is that, while the dessert may have been invented in New Zealand, it was undisputedly named in Australia.

 

On this day …….. 21st of August 1990

Decimal currency was first introduced in Australia on 14 February 1966. Replacing pounds, shillings and pence, the new currency was made up of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cent coins, and paper banknotes of $1, $2, $10 and $20 denominations, followed by the introduction of the $5 note in 1967. The education campaign to help the public make the transition featured a “Dollar Bill” cartoon character and jingles which were seen on billboards, television and radio advertisements. The Dollar Bill Decimal Currency Jingle, with lyrics written by Ted Roberts, was sung to the tune of “Click go the Shears”. All coins had the Queen’s effigy on one side. On the reverse side, the one cent coin had a representation of a feather tailed glider, and the two cent coin showed a representation of a frilled lizard, both of which were designed and sculpted by Stuart Devlin. Composition of the two coins was 97% copper 2.5% zinc 0.5% tin. On 21 August 1990, Federal Treasurer Paul Keating announced in his Budget Speech that the one and two cent coins would be withdrawn from circulation as of February 1992. The Press Release that accompanied the announcement stated “…1c and 2c coins will continue to be legal tender: they can still be used to purchase goods and can be deposited with financial institutions in the normal manner”. Inflation and the cost of minting of the coins were cited as reasons for their withdrawal.

 

On this day …….. 21st of August 1842

Hobart Town, the main settlement in Van Diemen’s Land, is proclaimed a city.

Hobart is the capital city of Tasmania, Australia, and is the second oldest city in Australia, with Sydney being the oldest. It is Australia’s twelfth largest city. Hobart also serves as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations.
The city began as a penal colony at Risdon Cove on the Derwent River in 1803 to offset British concerns over the presence of French explorers. A year later it was moved to its current location at Sullivan’s Cove. The name Hobart Town was adopted by the settlement in June 1804, after Lord Hobart the Colonial Secretary. The colony of Van Diemen’s Land was proclaimed a separate colony from New South Wales, with its own judicial establishment and Legislative Council, in December 1825. Hobart Town was proclaimed a city on 21 August 1842, and was renamed as Hobart in 1875.

Hobart Town, Van Diemen’s Land, proclaimed a city, Hobart, capital city of Tasmania, Australia, second oldest city in Australia, Sydney, Australian, French Antarctic operations, penal colony, Risdon Cove, Derwent River, French explorers, Sullivan’s Cove, Lord Hobart the Colonial Secretary

On this day …….. 31st of July 1942

In WWII, the first real attack of the Japanese on an Australian base occurred with the bombing of Darwin on 19 February 1942. That attack was the first of about 90 attacks that occurred at various places in and around Australia during the war. Shortly after this initial attack, the northwest coastal towns of Broome and Wyndham also came under fire, followed by Derby a few weeks later. It is less well known that the town of Mossman, near Cairns, was also bombed. On the night of 31 July 1942, Sub Lieutenant Mizukura dropped eight bombs, thinking that the lights he saw were Cairns. In fact it was Mossman, and while the other seven bombs have never been recovered, one fell on a sugar cane farm near Saltwater, Mossman. It caused a crater that measured 7 metres wide and a metre deep, and sent flying shrapnel through the window of the nearby farmhouse. Farmer Felice Zullo’s two and a half year old daughter was wounded in the head from shrapnel which entered the house, although she was in her cot at the time.

The child grew up to become Mrs Carmel Emmi, and on 31 July 1991, Mrs Emmi unveiled a plaque on a memorial stone commemorating the attack and her survival. The memorial stone is situated on Bamboo Creek Road, after the turnoff to Whyanbeel.

 

Big lamington – artist’s impression

On June 11, 2011, Toowoomba broke the Guinness World Record for the world’s largest lamington at the Newtown Rugby League Club. The record-beater weighed 2361 kilograms, equivalent to 45000 normal lamingtons, and eclipsed the previous record held by Ipswich. Both cities claim to be the birthplace of this Australian classic and Toowoomba is contemplating erecting a “big lamington” as a tourist attraction.

On This Day ……. 31st May 1942

When the town of Darwin was bombed by the Japanese in World War II, Australians were forced to accept the reality of how close the war was. Further bombing raids continued along Australia’s northwestern coastline, and even Townsville and Mossman in far north Queensland, but the war was truly brought home to Australians living along the more populated east coast on the day that three Japanese submarines entered Sydney Harbour. On the afternoon of 31 May 1942, three Japanese submarines sat approximately thirteen kilometres out from Sydney Harbour. Each launched a midget submarine, hoping to sink an American heavy cruiser, the USS Chicago, which was anchored in the harbour. One midget was detected by harbour defences at about 8:00pm, but was not precisely located until it became entangled in the net; the two-man crew of the submarine blew up their own vessel to avoid capture. When the second midget was detected after 10:00pm, a general alarm was sounded. The third midget was damaged by depth charges, and the crew also committed suicide to avoid capture. When the second midget was detected after 11:00pm and fired upon, the submarine returned fire, hitting the naval depot ship HMAS Kuttabul, a converted harbour ferry, which served as an accommodation vessel. Nineteen Australian and two British sailors on the Kuttabul died, the only Allied deaths resulting from the attack, and survivors were pulled from the sinking vessel. The submarine presumably returned to its mother ship, known as I-24. Nine days later, on 8 June 1942, I-24 surfaced off Sydney, about 10 km off Maroubra. For four minutes, the submarine’s deck gun was fired at the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Every shot landed well short of its target, with at least 10 shells hitting the residential suburbs of Rose Bay, Woollahra and Bellevue Hill. All but one of the shells failed to explode and there were no fatalities or serious injuries.

On this day …….. 27th May 1967

Aboriginal people became Australian citizens in 1947, when a separate Australian citizenship was created for the first time. Prior to this, all Australians were “British subjects”. Aboriginal people gained the vote in Commonwealth territories in 1965, and earlier in different states, according to various state laws. The referendum of 27 May 1967 approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians, removing two sections from the Constitution. The first was a phrase in Section 51 (xxvi) which stated that the Federal Government had the power to make laws with respect to “the people of any race, other than the Aboriginal race in any State, for whom it is deemed necessary to make special laws.” The referendum removed the phrase “other than the Aboriginal race in any State,” giving the Commonwealth the power to make laws specifically to benefit Aboriginal people. The second was Section 127, which stated: “In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, Aboriginal natives shall not be counted.” The referendum deleted this section from the Constitution. This was not a reference to the census, as Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. Rather, the section related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants. This prevented Queensland and Western Australia using their large Aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. The referendum was endorsed by over 90% of voters and carried in all six states. Ultimately, the real legislative and political impact of the 1967 referendum was to enable the federal government to take action in the area of Aboriginal Affairs, introducing policies to encourage self-determination and financial security for Aborigines.

On this day ……. 9th April 1865

John Fuller aka Daniel Morgan aka Mad Dog Morgan was born in 1830 and was killed by police on this day in 1865. He was an Australian bushranger from North East Victoria and Southern NSW. After he killed a trooper in July 1864, the Government put a £1,000 bounty on his head. He was shot and killed after holding up the McPherson family at Peechelba Station the day before in Victoria.